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This place was always called Bahia...One of the names for the tribes that still exist today is Baenã.  They don't look like the Indians you see on t.v. in the U.S. either.

check out this link for the complete article:


The indigenous peoples today known generically by the ethnonym Pataxó Hãhãhãe are made up of the Baenã, Pataxó Hãhãhãe, Kamakã, Tupinambá, Kariri-Sapuyá and Gueren ethnic groups. Inhabitants of the south of Bahia state, the contact history of these groups with non-indigenous populations has been shaped by land expropriations, forced relocations, the transmission of diseases and killings. The land reserved for them by the State in 1926 was invaded and largely converted into private farms. The slow and tortuous process of regaining these lands began in the 1980s only: a successful conclusion still appears to be some way off, with the reserve remaining under judicial consideration.

Direct contact

Follow the latest news and events concerning the Pataxó Hã-hã-hãe, and other groups, on the web a: and

Location and population

The population inhabits the Caramuru-Paraguaçu Indigenous Reserve, 54,099 ha in size, in the south of
Bahia, in the municipalities of Itajú do Colônia, Camacã and Pau-Brasil. This area is currently being kept under judicial consideration. Some also live in the Fazenda Baiana Reserve, 304 ha in size, in Camamu municipality in the far south of Bahia.

In May 2005 the population living in the
Caramuru-Paraguaçu Reserve comprised 2,147 individuals, representing 1,139 men and 1,008 women. The inhabitants of the Fazenda Baiana Reserve number 72 people, 33 men and 39 women. Combined the two populations therefore total 2,219 people.


The languages spoken by the various ethnic groups encompassed by the Pataxó Hãhãhãe ethnonym are no longer in active use, apart from isolated words from their lexicons. Until 1911 the Pataxó and Kamakã languages were undoubtedly in full use, which means that the violent contact to which the Indians were subjected through the actions of the SPI (Indian Protection Service) had a terrible impact on them, affecting the native languages too. The Pataxó language survived until at least 1938 when Curt Nimuendaju encountered speakers living in the Caramuru-Paraguaçu Reserve.


The lands now forming the Caramuru-Paraguaçu Reserve, created by the then Indian Protection Service (SPI) in 1926 on lands ceded by the State of Bahia for the “usufruct of Pataxó and Tupinambá Indians” (State Law No. 1916/26. Official Gazette. Salvador, 11/08/1926. Pp. 9935.) were traditionally home to the Pataxó Hãhãhãe and Baenã, as oral tradition confirms. Kamuru-Iguaxó Igueligecis, for example, referred to the Hãhãhãe as “the native Indians of the post, conquered in the Serra do Couro Dantas” (interview given in 1977 in Barra Velha Village, Porto Seguro, BA, to Maria Rosário G. de Carvalho).
The non-Indian Otaviano, born in Itajú do Colônia close to the Caramuru IP at a farm called

Belo Horizonte, referred to them as Indians “caught in the Serra das Três Pontas, later renamed Itarantim.” Otaviano’s father had ‘tamed’ Indians at the Acampamento Farm, established two kilometres from the Caramuru Indigenous Post: “it was where he housed the Indians coming from Itarantim. My father went to help look after them, help teach them, help teach them to speak, teach them to work.” According to Otaviano, the Indians ‘caught’ in the forests of the Caramuru IP were relocated in the dry season, when there was no game, to Rancho Queimado and Mundo Novo, at the Paraguaçu IP to the south of the reserve.

Go to that link to read more:

Check this video. (It is in Portuguese)

1 comment:

  1. Amazing! Its unique history has created an abundance of racial mixtures, cultural differences, language variations, customs, foods, and religions. Planning a trip to Brazil is usually an exercise in choosing your priorities and focusing in on the possibilities.


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